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        園林塑石假山制作的相關知識

        來源:http://www.ultimateslotcar.com/news/633.html  更新時間:2023-05-31
        假山雖有峰、巒、洞、壑等各種變化,但就山石相互之間的結合而言,卻可以概括為10多種基本形式。北京的“山子張”張蔚庭老師總結過“十字訣”,即“安、連、接、斗、挎、拼、懸、俞、卡、垂”還有挑、飄等,江南一帶則流傳為九字訣,即“疊、豎、墊、拼、挑、壓、鉤、掛、撐”。兩相比較,有些是共有的字,有些稱呼不同內容一樣,可見南北匠師是一脈相承的。
        Although rockery has various changes such as peaks, ridges, caves, and valleys, the combination of mountains and rocks can be summarized into more than 10 basic forms. Teacher Zhang Weiting from Beijing, known as "Shanzi Zhang," has summarized the "Cross Code", which includes "installation, connection, connection, Dou, hanging, Yu, card, hanging," as well as "picking, floating," while in the Jiangnan area, there are nine character codes, which are "stacking, verticality, padding, splicing, picking, pressing, hooking, hanging, and supporting". Compared to others, some of them have common characters, while others have different titles with the same content, indicating that the craftsmen from the north and south are in a continuous line.
        假山制作技法中本無顯著的層次區分,但為了剖析的便利,也為了必定的結構要求,按其部位將其組成分為基底、中層和頂層三個部分。
        There is no significant hierarchical distinction in the rockery production technique, but for the convenience of analysis and certain structural requirements, its composition is divided into three parts according to its location: the base, middle layer, and top layer.
        柱石即頭層安,俗稱“拉底”。它有必要立于根底之上,有安定的底層。柱石為“疊石之本”,所有豎向與橫向的發揮,全看柱石的安頓。
        濟南太湖石假山制作
        The pillar stone is also known as the top layer, commonly known as the "pull bottom". It is necessary to stand on the foundation and have a stable bottom. The pillar stone is the "foundation of stacking stones", and all vertical and horizontal play depends on the placement of the pillar stone.
        用材的挑選:多選用巨型或中型之石塊。體形不必太美,但需緊硬、耐壓。
        Selection of materials: Choose large or medium-sized stones more often. The body shape does not need to be too beautiful, but it needs to be tight, hard, and pressure resistant.
        注意事項:活用——用石有必要靈敏,力求不同形體、巨細參差混用,防止巨細一樣的石連安;找平—將山石的最大而平坦之面朝上,用眼力找平,然后在其下面墊石,使之安定;錯安——安石排列、必犬牙相錯,高低紛歧,首尾拼連呈不同形狀;朝向——安基有必要考慮假山的朝向,要將每塊石的凹凸多變的一朝向游人視野會集的一面(即主立面);斷續——柱石防止筑成墻基式,應有斷有續,有整有零;并靠——成組安石,接口靠緊,搭接安定。
        Attention: Flexible use - It is necessary to use stones sensitively, striving to mix different shapes and sizes to prevent the same size of stones from being connected; Leveling - Place the largest and flat surface of the mountain stone facing upwards, level it with your eyes, and then place a stone under it to stabilize it; Misalignment - The arrangement of the stones must be staggered, with varying heights, and the heads and tails connected in different shapes; Orientation - It is necessary for Anji to consider the orientation of the rockery, with each stone facing the side where the visitor's view converges (i.e. the main facade) with its varied concavity and convexity; Intermittent - The pillar stone should prevent building into a wall foundation, and there should be gaps and gaps, as well as gaps and gaps; And rely on - group Anshi, the interface is tight, and the overlap is stable.
        中層坐落底石以上、頂層以下的部分,這部分的假山體量最大、是最具欣賞力的部位,用材廣泛,造型富于改變,山體的形狀展現多出自該層。
        The middle layer is located above the bottom stone and below the top layer. This part of the rockery has the largest volume and is the most appreciative part, with a wide range of materials and a variety of shapes. The shape of the mountain is mostly displayed from this layer.
        位于基石之上,為疊山的主要構成部分,其藝術手法豐富多變,下面從結構上加以分析。
        Located on the cornerstone, it is the main component of the stacked mountain, with rich and varied artistic techniques. Below, we will analyze it from a structural perspective.
        用材——凡石型佳美者多用于此,但必須注意在特別受力點處一定要用堅實的石塊,以免發生危險。
        Materials - Most stone shaped and beautiful materials are used here, but it is important to use solid stones at special stress points to avoid danger.
        注意事項:平穩——與安基相同,使石塊大面朝上安放平穩;連貫——疊石不論如何錯綜復雜,須石連靠相接,使上下左右連貫成一體;避磋——即避免閃露出狹小石面,因為它既不能再行疊石,又非常難看,俗稱為“閃磋露尾”;偏安——每置一石,必要考慮其繼續發展的可能。
        Attention: Stable - the same as Anji, so that the stone is placed smoothly with the large side facing upwards; Coherence - No matter how intricate the stacked stones are, they must be connected and connected, making the upper, lower, left, and right coherent into one; Avoiding competition - that is, to avoid revealing a narrow stone surface, because it can no longer stack stones and is very ugly, commonly known as "flashing competition revealing the tail"; Biaan - Every time a stone is placed, it is necessary to consider its potential for further development.
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