First, when making a clear distinction between priorities, there can only be one main peak, and the main peak should not be centered, otherwise it will create a rigid and symmetrical mountain pattern that cannot generate momentum, giving a feeling of depression and occlusion. The main peak is also not suitable for living on the edge, and if it is on the edge, it will appear unstable in the center of gravity. Generally, the main peak is preferably located at one-third or two-thirds of the entire length of the mountain stone. "There should be multiple secondary peaks, centered around the main peak, spreading forward, backward, left, and right. They should look at each other and be connected to the main peak, creating a pattern of stars and moons, in order to achieve the artistic effect of distinguishing between the primary and secondary peaks, with guests following the main.". The rear peak should be higher than the front peak, and the height, size, and posture of each peak should be different. Look closely at the overall connection, and each peak has its own posture. No matter the main peak or the secondary peak, the canine teeth should not cross into a sharp angle shape, nor should they be arranged in a pyramid or trapezoidal shape, otherwise it will appear dull and false.
Secondly, it is necessary to be simple and appropriate. The landscape in the north is often dominated by grandeur. Therefore, when making works with northern landscape as the theme, it is necessary to be simple and appropriate regardless of the combination of mountains and stones, the planting of trees, and the embellishment of small pieces. The scenery in the south of the Yangtze River is not high or dangerous, and it is known for its beautiful scenery. Therefore, it is appropriate to make it simple rather than complex, in order to achieve the charm of "sparse trees, cold mountains, and distant scenery.". In the same basin of work, there should also be a mixture of simplicity and complexity. "Many mountains are painted, only one peak is selected.". "For a work that combines the three distant methods well, the" Qingfeng "(high and far near the mountain) must be complex, even with very fine contour lines, while the" Qianshan "(distant mountains, distant reefs, and small islands in Pingyuan) modeling texture should be slightly simplified, and the color can also be slightly lighter, making it appear ethereal and indistinct, making the front and rear layers clear, the mountain towering and majestic, and the distant mountains penetrating like eyebrows.". This combination of complexity and simplicity has a profound and inexhaustible artistic conception.
The third is to combine reality with reality. In the picture, there is only a leaf boat floating on the water, and a fisherman fishing alone on the boat. Except for a few microwaves, the rest is blank. This kind of virtual brush is even more evocative. It's true that there is no painting here than there is painting. When dealing with the relationship between various parts of water bonsai, it is also necessary to have both reality and emptiness, and to have a certain degree of density. When dealing with a certain part, it is also necessary to have emptiness in reality, real in emptiness, sparse in density, and dense in sparse.
The Tibetan ancients said, "The more hidden the scenery, the greater the realm; the more exposed the scenery, the smaller the realm." There is no bonsai in all Tibet, because all Tibet equals no scenery. The fully exposed bonsai has a panoramic view, lacks taste and connotation beauty, and cannot become a top grade. Therefore, a bonsai work must have hidden dew and hidden dew, interacting and influencing each other.
"To create a landscape bonsai, it is necessary to pay attention to the changes in the curvature of the lines. For example, when modeling the mountainside, the mountainside lines should be smooth, not symmetrical, and there should be changes from left to right. One side should be long, and the other side should be short, that is, one side should have a steep slope, and the other side should have a gentle slope, creating a momentum in the shape of the mountain.". Each group of lines should be natural from different angles, and should not be rigid and rigid. The shape of the foot line of a mountain cannot be in the same straight line or arc. It should have large curves and small curves, some closed and some open, so as to bring about changes in the elevation layout and water surface, and achieve an artistic conception of embracing, tortuous, implicit, and interesting. The processing of mountain stone fold texture requires more careful and complex changes in the curvature of the lines. There must be no straight lines, large surfaces, or points connected in a straight line. The lines are required to be deep and shallow, bright and dark, broken and continuous, wide and narrow, sparse and dense, thick and thin, curved and straight, and straight and straight.
Six, plant the appropriate "stone is stubborn, the tree is alive, it is spiritual.". Only when plants grow on the rocks can they increase their vitality, and only then can they have the realistic and beautiful feeling of towering mountains and dense trees. It enables people to enjoy the four seasonal scenery of tender green branches in spring, covered with summer trees, red leaves in autumn, and sparse winter forests. To plant mountains and stones, it is necessary to use fewer trees to outweigh more, so that trees cannot be multiplied, and the beauty of the mountains must be seen.
Proper placement of accessories in landscape bonsai does not mean that the more the better, let alone random placement. Rather, it is necessary to fully comply with the needs of artistic composition and artistic conception creation of bonsai. Properly placing two or three pieces requires not only setting off and connecting with each other, but also considering whether they conform to the reality of life, and organically combining artistry and realism. As the ancients said in "The Secret of Mountains and Rivers", "A monk's cottage can be placed at the place where you hug him, and a house can be placed at the edge of water and land." In the same way, the pagoda is placed on the second peak, the arbor is placed halfway up the mountain, the small bridge is built between the streams and ditches, the plank path is built on the mountain pass, the hut is hidden behind the jungle, the fishing cloth is placed in the shallow water area, the ferry berth is placed on the slope beach, the waterside pavilion is placed at the foot of the mountain facing the water, the water is wide, and the wind sails are installed, and the narrow water is used to dispose of bamboo rafts. Accessories should also be closely related to the theme of the work and consistent with the regional style.
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